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Backpacker Magazine – May 2009

Treat a Snakebite

Four myths about snakebites, dispelled.

by: Buck Tilton


Myth: Venomous snakes would like nothing better than to sink their fangs into your ankle.

Fact: Snakes avoid humans and won't bite unless they feel threatened. Even so, the mistaken belief that snakes are aggressive persists–along with plenty of other myths about what to do if you're bitten. Here, we separate the first-aid science from the fiction.

DON'T slice across the fang marks and try to suck out the venom with your mouth. Despite the myth's staying power, the so-called "cut-and-suck" method has never been proven effective. Because a snake's fangs are curved, the pocket of venom probably isn't located where you think it is; even if you do find it, venom spreads so quickly you won't be able to extract much. Plus, about 20 percent of snakebites are "dry," or totally lacking venom. Cutting into the skin creates a nasty wound and increases the risk of infection with no medical benefit.

DON'T apply a suction device. This once-standard treatment has been debunked, says snake venom expert Robert Norris, M.D. Not only are such devices ineffective at removing venom, but the aggressive suction can damage tissue.

DON'T apply a tourniquet. Restricting superficial blood flow does keep the venom from spreading–but that's exactly what you don't want to happen. Venom that stays concentrated near the bite will rapidly destroy cells; allowing it to spread will dilute the toxin and likely reduce tissue damage.

DON'T apply a cold pack. Long-term application of cold makes the injury worse by reducing healthy circulation to the area. Even short-term exposure could be risky: Ice won't neutralize the venom, but some experts think snake venom increases vulnerability to frostbite.

DO get the victim to medical attention ASAP–the only effective treatment is a dose of antivenin, stat. Clean the wound with soap and water or antiseptic wipes from your first-aid kit and remove any jewelry or tight-fitting clothing in case of swelling. Carry the victim out if it's possible; if not, have him hike out slowly without a pack. Mark the edge of any swollen areas every 15 minutes with a pen to help doctors judge the extent of envenomation. Don't Get Bitten
  • Wear high-cut boots to protect your ankles when bushwhacking in rattlesnake country.
  • Watch where you put your hands and feet, especially when scrambling on rocky ledges or gathering wood (both are situations where you're more likely to encounter a snake).
  • Obvious, but worth repeating: Do not approach, poke, pick up, or otherwise harass a snake. Two-thirds of bites happen to people who are intentionally messing with the reptile.


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Brad
May 29, 2013

I've done a ton of research on this and the best stuff I found was called Herbal Antivenin. Made by a company named Elk Haven Herbals. Check them out.

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May 29, 2013

I've done a ton of research on this and the best stuff I found was called Herbal Antivenin. Made by a company named Elk Haven Herbals. Check them out.

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Ron Huff
May 02, 2013

Good thing this guy didn't read this STUPID article! Those of us who have faced this KNOW that every moment the venom is left to circulate increases damage/danger! http://www.grindtv.com/outdoor/nature/post/hunter-saves-own-life-after-rattlesnake-bite/
The old kits should be thrown away. Modern extractor type will GREATLY improve your chances of survival. As an avid outdoorsman and a paramedic, I know that time is critical in any poison situation. Search "The Extractor Pump Kit" for further info.

Bad Advice
Aug 01, 2011

Your notion that people should clean the wound is bad advice. Tests will need to be performed on any remaining venom on the skin to determine the species of snake definitively and administer the correct antivenin. Keep the bite below your heart and get to a hospital. Don't waste time monkeying around with folk remedies.

dylan herd
Mar 14, 2011

When taking an amimal handling class here in college i have worked with many venomous snakes and can say that they just want to enjoy life and chill. If you avoid them, they will avoid you. Also you wont strike unless provoded. The rattle snake for instiance uses it rattle to tell you im pisses off dont screw with me. On the other hand many take this as the o crap run for your life. Stay calm and make sure not to make any quick movements that will provoke the animals instinks to act fast. Locate the snake and move in the opposite direction very slowly and no quick actions. Snakes have a organ in there head that can detect body heat so if you try and run for it with out locating them first you will pay for it.

Richard
Mar 11, 2011

I have used my suction kit on bee stings and it really seemed to lessen the severity (swelling and itching).It was applied immediately and only used for about 3 minutes. Does any one have a similar story about a snakebite?

Greg - ER Doc
Jan 23, 2011

The best snakebite kits are made by companies with names such as Motorola, Samsung, Nokia, and Apple. Call for or carry the victim to within range of professional help. Use your Cutter kits and Sawyer Extractors as tinder for your next fire. Forget tourniquets and ice (like you have it in your pack...) Timed (every 30 min) marking of areas with evidence of inflammation (swelling) can help to determine the the severity and subsequent need for antivenom.
In 15 years of practice, all but one of my snakebite victims (he was pulling weeds) had intentionally picked up a reluctant reptile. Like bears, if you let them know you are there (mommas and grizzlies excluded) they will run; they want nothing to do with you...

Jean
Oct 14, 2010

I was bitten by a copperhead a little more than a year ago. One fang skimmed the surface of my big toe and one went in fairly deeply. Fortunately, a car and driver were present, so we called 911 and arranged to meet with an ambulance on the way to the hospital. Since I had taken WFA courses twice, I knew to remain calm (which, amazingly, I was able to do!), take off my rings, take note of the exact time of day (there is a window of time that hospital people have to take blood for a blood coagulation test), keep my foot at or slightly below heart level, mark the bite site, and be watching for any signs of anaphalactic shock. Long story short, I did not receive antivenin. I was told by the hospital staff that antivenin is dangerous in itself and its use is reserved for patients who will likely die without it. A surgeon removed (without anesthesia of any sort!)the necrotic tissue at the bite site three times. He later told me he thought at first that I would lose my toe. I'm glad he was wrong! After a couple of days, a line was visible up my leg all the way to my groin area where the lymphatic system was removing the venom to be processed by the liver. I was hospitalized three days and couldn't walk at all for about three weeks. However, after two months I was able to take a backpacking trip to the Art Loeb Trail in NC. A year later, I still have occasional pain and always some swelling on the underside of my foot. There is a small spot where I have no sensation, but I think it is still improving. I have become a Red Cross Wilderness First Aid instructor, and I share my snakebite experience with others so they can be educationally and emotionally prepared.

Argosinu
Oct 14, 2010

Extracting venom cannot be a bad thing, but there may be collateral damage. That's the tradeoff. You still probably have to walk out. Diluted venom is probably better than full-strength venom, but is spreading it through the whole body the best idea? What is the time frame to loss of consciousness or death? [Yes, it depends on body mass, amount of venom, and other factors, but should we walk out of the Virgin Narrows or send a sprinter to call a helicopter?)
I have a suction kit, but would not cut much (if any). I'll have to ask my doctor about getting antivenom for home usage to add to my epipen and glucagon.

Tom Daniels
Mar 31, 2010

Just wondering what I should do with the snake-bite kit I own? According to this information, I shouldn't even bother bringing it when I hike. I have the suction type and I would think removing even a small amount of venom would be beneficial? If snake-bite kits are useless, why are so many of them made and sold?

Brian
Oct 06, 2009

U.S Armed Forces survival manual states up to 30% of the venom can be removed via slicing across the fang marks (being careful not to cut too deeply) and sucking the venom. Obviously, you would only do this in an extreme situation hours away from medical help.

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